Recent advances in animal studies for exploring dominant behaviors and human disease models have recognized fish as popular vertebrate models having comparable basic physiology and molecular biology. Despite the divergence from mammals about 400 years ago, the fish model system has achieved substantial acceptance owing to its homogeneity and ease of availability. The Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the world’s most consumed and bred freshwater fish, with significant size and high fecundity, which allows superior analysis of the biological processes and to explore the effect of genetics and transgenetic endeavors. Because of its extensive aquaculture, the common carp has also become vulnerable to diseases and infections under the influence of certain inducers. To mitigate these diseases, a recent approach has been the use of immunomodulators/immunostimulants that influence and strengthen the host’s immune response. These agents can be biological (certain bacteria) or synthesized chemicals that stimulate the innate immunity to act via cellular or humoral pathways. The data was collected by referring to various databases such as Wiley, Elsevier, PubMed, and Web of Science sources. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the various agents used so far for immunomodulation in the common carp. Subsequently, the role of certain inflammatory mediators like cytokines, tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, and nitric oxide synthase has been discussed in the light of both human and fish research. This review article highlights the utility of common carp as an immunomodulatory model, besides bringing to attention the potential pathways and molecular targets that may be used for developing alternate therapies for common diseases. Furthermore, it also aims to suggest a potential collaboration between marine and pharmaceutical researchers that can help to enlighten the path in the surge of new drug candidates in the future.
Keywords: Immune system, Cytokine, Cyprinus carpio, Common Carp, Immunomodulatory model, TNF-α, IL-1β, NOS.