Effectiveness of Second-Line Agents in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Tertiary-Care Based Study

    Published on:July/2018
    Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2018; 10(3):334-339
    Original Article | doi:10.5530/jyp.2018.10.74

    Rupam Gill1, Shalini Adiga2,*, Muralidhar Varma3

    1Department of Pharmacology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, INDIA.

    2Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, INDIA.

    3Department of Internal Medicine, Kasturba Hospital, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, INDIA.


    Background: The rational prescribing of second-line drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) require clear guidelines. There is no sufficient empirical evidence to support the use of one second-line agent over the other and when to initiate second-line drug is still under discrepancy. Objectives: To analyze the utilization pattern and effectiveness of second-line agents in uncomplicated type 2 DM. Methodology: 240 uncomplicated type 2 DM patients who were ≥ 18 years receiving either metformin/sulfonylurea or metformin+sulfonylurea was divided into four add-on treatment group 1, 2, 3, 4; that were added pioglitazone, dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP-4) inhibitor, voglibose, and insulin [pre-mixed insulin (30%regular/70%NPH)] respectively and received the second-line agents for a duration of 6 months or longer. Effectiveness was based on the reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) values over 3 and 6 months was done using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The mean difference for reduction in HbA1C (%) values at 3rd and 6th month with respect to baseline values was 1.32±0.72 and 2.11±0.97; 1.19±0.27 and 1.81±0.53; 1.16±0.41 and 1.66±0.63; 0.97±0.16 and 1.46±0.47 for pioglitazone, DPP-4 inhibitor, voglibose, insulin respectively. The mean difference in FPG and PPBG levels at the 6th month from baseline was 75±31.06 and 115.3±40.32; 77.91±37.95 and 117±41.27; 85.87±21.75 and 118.75±55.86; 91.38±31.8 and 132.03±56.24 for pioglitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, voglibose and insulin respectively. Reduction in HbA1C, FPG, and PPBG was statistically significant within each group at each time interval with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: All the add-on groups exhibited a significant reduction in HbA1C, FPG, and PPBG over 3 and 6 months. DPP-4 inhibitors exhibited least hypoglycemic episodes. DPP-4 inhibitors are trending and marginally more effective second-line OHA in uncomplicated type 2 DM.

    Key words: Anti-diabetic drugs, FPG, HbA1C, PPBG, Second-line agents.


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